Definition: Affordance

Affordance  (Also:  Usability, Discoverability, Intuitiveness)

The quality of an object or environment that allows a Player to intuitively discern and perform the gameplay action associated with that object or environment.

In his most profound philosophical work Being and Time, Martin Heidegger makes a distinction between two types of attitudes that we can have toward an object.  First, an object can be “present-to-hand”, which means that it exists and we can observe it and theorize about it.  Heidegger claims that this is an uncomfortable mode for us, that it is inferior to the more natural second attitude where an object has an immediate purpose, which he calls being “ready-to-hand”.

Imagine you are walking through a Home Depot and see a collection of hammers hanging from pegboard in the tool section.  Let’s say you are an English major and you have never seen a hammer before.  You might assume that you had stumbled into an unusual art gallery and start admiring the variety of colors and shapes the artist had created.  Clearly they are a phallic representation of our patriarchal history…

In this example, you would be treating the hammers as if they were “present-at-hand”.  In a game, every time the player is forced to stop and think about the possible actions an object affords they are forced out of their flow state.  If this happens too often they will never be able to relax and enjoy the game.

Killer Queeeeeen

Chess - A terrible example of percieved affordance

Now imagine you are in a burning building and the only exit is blocked by a flimsy plywood door.  This time when you see the hammer on the wall you do not perceive it as an object, but as a tool with a clear purpose.  There is no hesitation because there is no analysis.  The hammer is “ready-at-hand” and that door is “ready-to-smash”.  There is no break in flow because both the hammer and the exit door have clearly perceived affordances.

This is especially important in games, because the player cannot even begin to play until they understand what actions they can take.  The faster they can understand what is possible, the earlier they can get past the theorizing state and into the flow state of proper play.


The Melinda Mae Method

Although this is a blogging site, this isn’t a blog.  I won’t be reviewing games or collecting links to more interesting writers or making “insightful” comments about the latest gaming news to troll for traffic.  In fact, even though these words will be public, I don’t expect anyone to read them, at least in this form.  I’m just going to pile up game design concepts, definitions and analysis until it reaches critical mass and becomes something else… or I run out of things to say.

Either way, I probably won’t have the patience to go 89 years.

Looks more like a manatee

*The consumption of raw or undercooked seafood may increase your risk of food borne illness