Previously, we’ve defined games as “interactive experiences constrained by mechanics designed to reliably satisfy common exotelic aspirations“. In other words, humans have needs. Some of those needs are aspirational, meaning they aren’t necessary, but produce a positive emotion when met. And some of those aspirations are exotelic, meaning they are not fulfilled by getting something, but by being used for some other good. Games are the ideal source for meeting these needs because they are entertaining (required for aspirations) and interactive (required for exotelic experiences.) But how do games meet this sort of need? What is the process by which a game is fun? And by understanding this process, can we make them more fun?
Lacks and Goods
Every need consists of two complimentary halves, an internal lack and an external good. If someone has absolutely no desires or requirements, or those desires and requirements can be met completely internally, than they never suffer from a lack and therefore never have any needs. Those people do not play games… because they do not exist! The human condition is rooted in our imperfections and our inability to make ourselves whole. This means that needs can only be met by some external source.
On the other hand, most external objects do not meet any sort of need; a specific external good is necessary to fill a given internal lack. That is why games are particularly suited to a certain type of need, and totally useless when it comes to others. If a pet rock could really meet the need for affection and companionship, all of our needs would be instantly met by a pile of gravel.
When an internal lack is paired with the right external good, the need is met. When the need is a requirement, we refer to the feeling as “satisfaction” or “contentment” because it eliminates a source of negative emotion and leaves us feeling neutral. But when the need is an aspiration we commonly describe the experience as “gratifying” or “rewarding” because it is generally more positive and leaves us uplifted. Gratification and reward are the two most important tools in a game designer’s repertoire for meeting a player’s aspirations.
[To be continued…]